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Sigmoidoscopy/ Biopsy

Sigmoidoscopy is a test that looks at the inside lining of the distal colon only. In this regard, it is similar procedure to a colonoscopy but it requires minimal preparation and no sedation. People have colonoscopy as part of the evaluation of symptoms, such as blood in the bowel movement, altered bowel habits, or urgency. The colon needs to be cleaned out before sigmoidoscopy and this is accomplished by taking 2 enemas before the procedure. Then the doctor will introduce a thin tube with a camera and light on its end into the anus and up into the rectum and distal colon. During the procedure, the doctor might do a biopsy. 

Risk for complications: +                   Discomfort: ++